Gut Check

Modulatory effects of the gut microbiome in cancer immunotherapy: A novel paradigm for blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitors

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Notably, intestinal microbiota can cooperate with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) of its host, especially in enhancing the efficacy of programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade therapy for cancer. Herein, we review the dual function of gut microbiota in triggering GI cancers, its association with host immunity and its beneficial functions in modulation of cancer immunotherapy responses. Importantly, supplementation with specific probiotics or prebiotics and restoring the favorable intestinal microbiome by applying FMT or the prevention of the unfavorable bacteria by narrow-spectrum antibiotics may improve the effectiveness of ICIs in tumor control.