Gut Check

Fecal microbiota transplant promotes response in immunotherapy-refractory melanoma patients

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We observed clinical responses in three patients, including two partial responses and one complete response. Notably, treatment with FMT was associated with favorable changes in immune cell infiltrates and gene expression profiles in both the gut lamina propria and the tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, FMT from CR donors and re-induction of anti-PD-1 therapy in refractory metastatic melanoma patients was safe and feasible. In some patients, this treatment increased the intra-tumoral immune activity, which was translated into objective clinical responses. These findings support the concept of overcoming resistance to immunotherapy by modulating the gut microbiota