Gut Check

Month: July 2020

Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship with the microbiome

A potential component in the development of IBD is the microbiota in the digestive tract, particularly the gut. While the exact role that the microbiome plays in IBD is unclear, many studies acknowledge the complex relationship between the gut bacteria and pathogenesis of IBD. The paediatric IBD microbiome is significantly different to that of healthy children, with decreased diversity and differences in bacterial composition (such as a decrease in Firmicutes). Changes in the microbiome relating to various treatments of IBD and disease severity have also been observed in multiple studies.

Probiotics have beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta‑analysis of randomized clinical trials

Probiotics have been reported to have a positive impact on the metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of probiotics on cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes based on randomized controlled studies. MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were reviewed to search for randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of probiotic supplementation on cardiometabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. 32 trials provided results suitable to be included in the analysis. The effects of probiotics were calculated for the following parameters: BMI, total cholesterol levels, LDL, triglycerides, HDL, CRP, HbA1c levels, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. Data analysis showed a significant effect of probiotics on reducing total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, CRP, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin levels, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. Supplementation with probiotics increased HDL levels however did not have a significant effect on BMI or LDL levels. Our data clearly suggest that probiotics could be a supplementary therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients to improve dyslipidemia and to promote better metabolic control. According to our analysis, probiotic supplementation is beneficial in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Combining IL-2-based immunotherapy with commensal probiotics produces enhanced antitumor immune response and tumor clearance

Background: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) serves as a pioneer of immunotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. However, there is a considerable proportion of patients who cannot benefit from this therapy due to the limited clinical responses and dose-limiting toxicities. Mounting evidence indicates that commensal microbiota shapes the outcome of cancer immunotherapies. In this study, we aim to investigate the enhancing effect of Akkermansia muciniphila (AKK), a beneficial commensal microbe receiving considerable attentions, on the antitumor efficacy of IL-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Colorectal carcinoma patient-derived tumor tissues were used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of combination treatment. AKK was orally delivered to B16F10 and CT26 tumor-bearing mice along with systemic IL-2 treatment. Flow cytometry was carried out to analyze the tumor immune microenvironment. The molecular mechanism of the enhanced therapeutic efficacy was explored by RNA-seq and then verified in tumor-bearing mice. Results: Combined treatment with IL-2 and AKK showed a stronger antitumor efficacy in colorectal cancer patient-derived tumor tissues. Meanwhile, the therapeutic outcome of IL-2 was significantly potentiated by oral administration of AKK in subcutaneous melanoma and colorectal tumor-bearing mice, resulting from the strengthened antitumor immune surveillance. Mechanistically, the antitumor immune response elicited by AKK was partially mediated by Amuc, derived from the outer membrane protein of AKK, through activating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling pathway. Besides, oral supplementation with AKK protected gut barrier function and maintained mucosal homeostasis under systemic IL-2 treatment. Conclusion: These findings propose that IL-2 combined with AKK is a novel therapeutic strategy with prospecting application for cancer treatment in clinical practice.