We observe that the microbiota diversity and richness of the ALL group is significantly lower than that of the control group at diagnosis and during chemotherapy. The microbiota diversity is even lower in antibiotics-exposed ALL patients. Although the gut microbial diversity tends to stabilize after 1-year post-chemotherapy, their abundances were altered because of chemotherapy and prophylactic antibiotic treatments. Specifically, the abundances of mucolytic gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, including Ruminococcus gnavus and Ruminococcus torques, tended to increase during the chemotherapy regimen and continued to be elevated 1 year beyond the initiation of chemotherapy. This dysbiosis may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal complications in ALL children following chemotherapy.